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A 3D geometric morphometric dataset quantifying skeletal variation in birds
Alexander Bjarnason and Roger Benson
Published online: 2021-02-09

Keywords: birds; Geometric morphometrics; macroevolution; morphology; skeleton

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.125

  Abstract

    Macroevolution is integral to understanding the patterns of the diversification of life. As the life sciences increasingly use big data approaches, large multivariate datasets are required to test fundamental macroevolutionary hypotheses. In vertebrate evolution, large datasets have been created to quantify morphological variation, largely focusing on particular areas of the skeleton. We provide a landmarking protocol to quantify morphological variation in skeletal elements across the head, trunk, hindlimb and forelimb using 3-dimensional landmarks and semilandmarks, and present a large pan-skeletal database of bird morphology for 149 taxa across avian phylogeny using CT scan data. This large collection of 3D models and geometric morphometric data is open access and can be used in the future for new research, teaching and outreach. The 3D models and CT scans of the 149 specimens related to this project can be downloaded at MorphoSource (https://www.morphosource.org/projects/00000C420

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Published in Volume 07, issue 01 (2021)

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S.I. Data
MicroCT survey of larval skeletal mineralization in the Cuban gar Atractosteus tristoechus (Actinopterygii; Lepisosteiformes)
Raphaël Scherrer, Andrés Hurtado, Erik Garcia Machado and Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud
Published online: 2017-05-17

Keywords: Actinopterygii; development; Lepisosteiformes; mineralization; skeleton

doi: 10.18563/m3.3.3.e3

  Abstract

    Using X-ray microtomography, we describe the ossification events during the larval development of a non-teleost actinopterygian species: the Cuban gar Atractosteus tristoechus from the order Lepisosteiformes. We provide a detailed developmental series for each anatomical structure, covering a large sequence of mineralization events going from an early stage (13 days post-hatching, 21mm total length) to an almost fully ossified larval stage (118dph or 87mm in standard length). With this work, we expect to bring new developmental data to be used in further comparative studies with other lineages of bony vertebrates. We also hope that the on-line publication of these twelve successive 3D reconstructions, fully labelled and flagged, will be an educational tool for all students in comparative anatomy. 

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Published in Volume 03, Issue 03 (2017)

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Skeletogenesis during the late embryonic development of the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthyes; Neoselachii)
Sébastien Enault, Sylvain Adnet and Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud
Published online: 2016-04-25

Keywords: Chondrichthyes; development; mineralization; Scyliorhinus canicula; skeleton

doi: 10.18563/m3.1.4.e2

  Abstract

    Current knowledge on the skeletogenesis of Chondrichthyes is scarce compared with their extant sister group, the bony fishes. Most of the previously described developmental tables in Chondrichthyes have focused on embryonic external morphology only. Due to its small body size and relative simplicity to raise eggs in laboratory conditions, the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula has emerged as a reference species to describe developmental mechanisms in the Chondrichthyes lineage. Here we investigate the dynamic of mineralization in a set of six embryonic specimens using X-ray microtomography and describe the developing units of both the dermal skeleton (teeth and dermal scales) and endoskeleton (vertebral axis). This preliminary data on skeletogenesis in the catshark sets the first bases to a more complete investigation of the skeletal developmental in Chondrichthyes. It should provide comparison points with data known in osteichthyans and could thus be used in the broader context of gnathostome skeletal evolution. 

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Published in Volume 01, Issue 04 (2016)

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