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A surface scan of the "Tübingen Steinkern", Holotype of Proganochelys quenstedtii (Testudinata), with some historical remarks.
Ingmar Werneburg, Christina Kyriakouli and Tomasz Szczygielski
Published online: 2022-08-08

Keywords: Friedrich August Quenstedt; history of science; Holotype; steinkern; surface scan

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.168

  Abstract

    Turtles are one of the most impressive vertebrates. Much of the body is either hidden in a shell or can be drawn into it. Turtles impress with their individual longevity and their often peaceful disposition. Also, with their resilience, they have survived all extinction events since their emergence in the Late Triassic. Today's diversity of shapes is impressive and ranges from the large and high domed Galapagos turtles to the hamster-sized flat pancake turtles. The holotype of one of the oldest fossil turtles, Proganochelys quenstedtii, is housed in the paleontological collection in Tübingen/Germany. Since its discovery some years before 1873, P. quenstedtii has represented the 'prototype' of the turtle and has had an eventful scientific history. It was found in Neuenhaus (Häfner-Neuhausen in Schönbuch forest), Baden-Württemberg, Germany, and stems from Löwenstein-Formation (Weißer Keupersandstein), Late Triassic. The current catalogue number is GPIT-PV-30000. The specimen is listed in the historical inventory “Tübinger Petrefaktenverzeichnis 1841 bis 1896, [folio 326v.]“, as “[catalogue number: PV]16549, Schildkröte Weiser Keupersandstein Hafnerhausen” [turtle from White Keuper Sandstone]. Another, more recent synonym is “GPIT/RE/9396”. The same specimen was presented as uncatalogued by Gaffney (1990). Here we provide a surface scan of the steinkern for easier access of this famous specimen to the scientific community.
      

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3D models related to the publication: Redescription, taxonomic revaluation, and phylogenetic affinities of Proterochampsa nodosa (Archosauriformes: Proterochampsidae), early Late Triassic of Candelaria Sequence (Santa Maria Supersequence)
Daniel de Simão-Oliveira, Felipe Lima Pinheiro, Marco Brandalise de Andrade and Flávio Augusto Pretto
Published online: 2022-07-04

Keywords: Archosauriformes; Late Triassic; osteology; Proterochampsia; taxonomy

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.170

  Abstract

    The present 3D dataset contains the 3D models of the holotype of Proterochampsa nodosa that were built and analysed in “Redescription, taxonomic revaluation, and phylogenetic affinities of Proterochampsa nodosa (Archosauriformes: Proterochampsidae), early Late Triassic of Candelaria Sequence (Santa Maria Supersequence)”. 

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The petrosal bone of Prodremotherium sp. (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia).
Alexandre Assemat and Nicolas Brualla
Published online: 2015-02-13

Keywords: Late Oligocene; MP 26; MP 28; periotic bone; ruminant

doi: 10.18563/m3.1.2.e1

  Abstract

    This project presents the 3D models of two isolated petrosals from the Oligocene locality of Pech de Fraysse (Quercy, France) here attributed to the genus Prodremotherium Filhol, 1877. Our aim is to describe the petrosal morphology of this Oligocene “early ruminant” as only few data are available in the literature for Oligocene taxa. 

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Published in Vol. 01, Issue 02 (2015)

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A 3D geometric morphometric dataset quantifying skeletal variation in birds
Alexander Bjarnason and Roger Benson
Published online: 2021-02-09

Keywords: birds; geometric morphometrics; macroevolution; morphology; skeleton

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.125

  Abstract

    Macroevolution is integral to understanding the patterns of the diversification of life. As the life sciences increasingly use big data approaches, large multivariate datasets are required to test fundamental macroevolutionary hypotheses. In vertebrate evolution, large datasets have been created to quantify morphological variation, largely focusing on particular areas of the skeleton. We provide a landmarking protocol to quantify morphological variation in skeletal elements across the head, trunk, hindlimb and forelimb using 3-dimensional landmarks and semilandmarks, and present a large pan-skeletal database of bird morphology for 149 taxa across avian phylogeny using CT scan data. This large collection of 3D models and geometric morphometric data is open access and can be used in the future for new research, teaching and outreach. The 3D models and CT scans of the 149 specimens related to this project can be downloaded at MorphoSource (https://www.morphosource.org/projects/00000C420

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Published in Volume 07, issue 01 (2021)

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S.I. Data
3D models related to the publication: Pushing the boundary? Testing the ‘functional elongation hypothesis’ of the giraffe’s neck
Marilena A. Müller, Luisa Merten, Christine Böhmer and John A. Nyakatura
Published online: 2021-01-12

Keywords: cetartiodactyla; Comparative anatomy; neck; Vertebrae; vertebral column

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.129

  Abstract

    This contribution contains the 3D models analyzed in Müller et al. (2021) “Pushing the boundary? Testing the ‘functional elongation hypothesis’ of the giraffe’s neck”. 

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Published in Volume 07, issue 01 (2021)

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The endocranial cast of a 10 ka intentionally deformed human cranium from China
Yin Qiyu, Li Qiang, Ma Ming, Zhang Wei and Ni Xijun
Published online: 2022-07-27

Keywords: endocranial cast; intentional cranial deformation; Northeast China

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.169

  Abstract

    This contribution contains the 3D model of an endocranial cast analyzed in “A 10 ka intentionally deformed human skull from Northeast Asia”. There are many studies on the morphological characteristics of intentional cranial deformation (ICD), but few related 3D models were published. Here, we present the surface model of an intentionally deformed 10 ka human cranium for further research on ICD practice. The 3D model of the endocranial cast of this ICD cranium was discovered near Harbin City, Province Heilongjiang, Northeast China. The fossil preserved only the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones. To complete the endocast model of the specimen, we printed a 3D model and used modeling clay to reconstruct the missing part based on the general form of the modern human endocast morphology.
      

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    Homo sapiens IVPP-PA1616 View specimen

    M3#976_IVPP-PA1616

    The original endocranial cast model (with texture) of IVPP-PA1616. It shows the original structures of the specimen, and was not altered in any way.

    Type: "3D_surfaces"

    3D view: doi: 10.18563/m3.sf.976  




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    M3#972_IVPP-PA1616

    The frontal region of the endocast is flattened, probably formed by the constant pressure on the frontal bone during growth. There is a well-developed frontal crest on the endocranial surface. The endocast widens posteriorly from the frontal lobe. The widest point of the endocast is at the lateral border of the parietal lobe. The lower parietal areas display a marked lateral expansion. The overall shape of the endocast is asymmetrical, with the left side of the parietal lobe being more laterally expanded than the right side. Like the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe is also anteroposteriorly flattened.

    Type: "3D_surfaces"

    3D view: doi: 10.18563/m3.sf.972  




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3D models related to the publication: First records of extinct kentriodontid and squalodelphinid dolphins from the Upper Marine Molasse (Burdigalian age) of Switzerland and a reappraisal of the Swiss cetacean fauna.
Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Jürg Jost and Sarah Hilfiker
Published online: 2022-04-19

Keywords: bony labyrinth; Inner ear; Kentriodontidae; Physeteridae; Squalodelphinidae

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.159

  Abstract

    This contribution contains the 3D models described and figured in the following publication: Aguirre-Fernández G, Jost J, and Hilfiker S. 2022. First records of extinct kentriodontid and squalodelphinid dolphins from the Upper Marine Molasse (Burdigalian age) of Switzerland and a reappraisal of the Swiss cetacean fauna. 

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Published in Volume 08, issue 02 (2022)

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3D models related to the publication: Skull sutures and cranial mechanics in the Permian reptile Captorhinus aguti and the evolution of the temporal region in early amniotes
 
Pascal Abel, Yannick Pommery, David P. Ford, Daisuke Koyabu and Ingmar Werneburg
Published online: 2022-05-28

Keywords: Captorhinidae; Cranial Osteology; Eureptilia; Reptilia; Sauropsida

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.167

  Abstract

    The present 3D Dataset contains the 3D models analyzed in: Abel P., Pommery Y., Ford D. P., Koyabu D., Werneburg I. 2022. Skull sutures and cranial mechanics in the Permian reptile Captorhinus aguti and the evolution of the temporal region in early amniotes. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2022.841784
      

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Published in Volume 08, issue 02 (2022)

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3D models related to the publication: New remains of Nalamaeryx (Tragulidae, Mammalia) from the Ladakh Himalaya and their phylogenetical and palaeoenvironmental implications
Wasim A. Wazir, Bastien Mennecart, Ramesh K. Sehgal, Navin Kumar, Piyush Uniyal, Rajeev Patnaik and Rohit Kumar
Published online: 2022-01-03

Keywords: Ladakh Himalaya; Mandibles; Nalameryx; Oligocene; ruminant

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.142

  Abstract

    The present 3D Dataset contains the 3D models analyzed in Mennecart B., Wazir W.A., Sehgal R.K., Patnaik R., Singh N.P., Kumar N, and Nanda A.C. 2021. New remains of Nalamaeryx (Tragulidae, Mammalia) from the Ladakh Himalaya and their phylogenetical and palaeoenvironmental implications. Historical Biology. https://doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2021.2014479
      

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Published in Volume 08, issue 01 (2022)

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3D models of three wolf pup skulls related to the publication: Neomorphosis and heterochrony of skull shape in dog domestication
 
Dominic Gascho, Sabrina Beutler, Cornelia Mainini and Madeleine Geiger
Published online: 2017-10-18

Keywords: Canidae; Canis lupus; Carnivora

doi: 10.18563/m3.3.4.e6

  Abstract

    This contribution comprises the 3D models of three wolf pup skulls, which were used for the publication by Geiger et al. 2017 on Neomorphosis and heterochrony of skull shape in dog domestication. 

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Published in Volume 03, Issue 04 (2017)

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3D model related to the publication: Sperm whales (Physeteroidea) from the Pisco Formation, Peru, and their trophic role as fat-sources for Late Miocene sharks
Aldo Benites-Palomino, Jorge Velez-Juarbe, Ali Altamirano-Sierra, Alberto Collareta, Jorge D. Carrillo-Briceño and Mario Urbina
Published online: 2022-06-29

Keywords: bite marks; cetaceans; predation; sharks; sperm whales

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.171

  Abstract

    The present 3D Dataset contains the 3D models analyzed in Benites-Palomino A., Velez-Juarbe J., Altamirano-Sierra A., Collareta A., Carrillo-Briceño J., and Urbina M. 2022. Sperm whales (Physeteroidea) from the Pisco Formation, Peru, and their Trophic role as fat-sources for Late Miocene sharks.
      

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Published in Volume 08, issue 02 (2022)

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3D models related to the publication: Description of the first cranium and endocranial structures of Stenoplesictis minor (Mammalia, Carnivora), an early aeluroid from the Oligocene of the Quercy Phosphorites (southwestern France)
Camille Grohé, Jérôme Surault, Axelle Gardin and Louis D. Bonis
Published online: 2022-05-08

Keywords: Aeluroidea; bony labyrinth; brain endocast; stapes; Stenoplesictoid

doi: 10.18563/m3.166

  Abstract

    This contribution contains the 3D models described and figured in the following publication: Bonis, L. de, Grohé, C., Surault, J., Gardin, A. 2022. Description of the first cranium and endocranial structures of Stenoplesictis minor (Mammalia, Carnivora), an early aeluroid from the Oligocene of the Quercy Phosphorites (southwestern France). Historical Biology. https://doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2022.2045980 

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Published in Volume 08, issue 02 (2022)

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Brain damage: the endocranial cast of Mixtotherium cuspidatum (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from the Victor Brun Museum (Montauban, France)
Maëva Orliac, Hugo Bouaziz and Romain Weppe
Published online: 2021-11-25

Keywords: artiodactyl; Late Eocene; Quercy

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.158

  Abstract

    Our knowledge of the external brain morphology of the late Eocene artiodactyl ungulate Mixtotherium, relies on a plaster model realized on a specimen from the Victor Brun Museum in Montauban (France) and described by Dechaseaux (1973). Here, based on micro CT-scan data, we virtually reconstruct the 3D cast of the empty cavity of the partial cranium MA PHQ 716 from the Victor Brun Museum and compare it to the plaster model illustrated and described by Dechaseaux (1973). Indeed, the specimen from which the original plaster endocast originates was not identified by Dechaseaux by a specimen number. We confirm here that the studied specimen was indeed the one described and illustrated by Dechaseaux (1973). We also reconstruct a second, more detailed, model providing additional morphological and quantitative observations made available by micro CT scan investigation such as precisions on the neopallium folding and endocranial volumes.
      

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Published in Volume 07, issue 04 (2021)

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3D model related to the publication: The scaly skin of the abelisaurid Carnotaurus sastrei (Theropoda: Ceratosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia
Christophe Hendrickx and Phil Bell
Published online: 2021-08-14

Keywords: Abelisauridae; Integument; non-avian Theropoda; Scales

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.149

  Abstract

    The present 3D Dataset contains the 3D model analyzed in Hendrickx, C. and Bell, P. R. 2021. The scaly skin of the abelisaurid Carnotaurus sastrei (Theropoda: Ceratosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia. Cretaceous Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2021.104994 

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    Carnotaurus sastrei MACN 894 View specimen

    M3#802_MACN 894

    3D reconstruction of the biggest patch of skin (~1200 cm2) from the anterior tail region of the holotype of Carnotaurus, which is the largest single patch of squamous integument available for any saurischian. The skin consists of medium to large (up to 65 mm in diameter) conical feature scales surrounded by a network of low and small (< 14 mm) irregular basement scales separated by narrow interstitial tissue.

    Type: "3D_surfaces"

    3D view: doi: 10.18563/m3.sf.802  




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Published in Volume 07, issue 03 (2021)

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3D models related to the publication: Micromeryx? eiselei - a new moschid species from Steinheim am Albuch, Germany, and the first comprehensive description of moschid cranial material from the Miocene of Central Europe
Manuela Aiglstorfer, Loïc Costeur, Bastien Mennecart and Elmar P. Heizmann
Published online: 2017-10-16

Keywords: Inner ear; Miocene; Moschidae; petrosal; skull

doi: 10.18563/m3.3.4.e4

  Abstract

    The present 3D Dataset contains the 3D models of the holotype (NMB Sth. 833) of the new species Micromeryx? eiselei analysed in the article Aiglstorfer, M., Costeur, L., Mennecart, B., Heizmann, E.P.J.. 2017. Micromeryx? eiselei - a new moschid species from Steinheim am Albuch, Germany, and the first comprehensive description of moschid cranial material from the Miocene of Central Europe. PlosOne https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185679 

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    Micromeryx? eiselei NMB Sth. 833 View specimen

    M3#284_NMB Sth. 833

    The 3 D surfaces comprises the skull, petrosal, and bony labyrinth of NMB Sth.833, the holotype of Micromeryx? eiselei

    Type: "3D_surfaces"

    3D view: doi: 10.18563/m3.sf.284  




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Published in Volume 03, Issue 04 (2017)

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3D models related to the publication: The neuroanatomy of Zulmasuchus querejazus (Crocodylomorpha, Sebecidae) and its implications for the paleoecology of sebecosuchians
Yohan Pochat-Cottilloux, Jeremy Martin, Stéphane Jouve, Gwendal . Perrichon, Jérôme . Adrien, Céline Salaviale, Christian de Muizon, Ricardo Cespedes and Romain Amiot
Published online: 2021-11-26

Keywords: Bolivia; Crocodylomorpha; paleoneuroanatomy; Sebecidae; Zulmasuchus

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.148

  Abstract

    The present 3D Dataset contains the 3D models analyzed in Pochat-Cottilloux Y., Martin J.E., Jouve S., Perrichon G., Adrien J., Salaviale C., de Muizon C., Cespedes R. & Amiot R. (2021). The neuroanatomy of Zulmasuchus querejazus (Crocodylomorpha, Sebecidae) and its implications for the paleoecology of sebecosuchians. The Anatomical Record, https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.24826 

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Published in Volume 07, issue 04 (2021)

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3D models related to the publication: Brain endocast of two non-mammaliaform cynodonts from southern Brazil: an ontogenetic and evolutionary approach.
Carolina Hoffmann, Pablo Rodrigues, Marina Soares and Marco Brandalise
Published online: 2022-08-09

Keywords: Brain evolution; Computed Tomography; Cynodontia; Encephalization Quotient; Triassic.

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.172

  Abstract

    This contribution contains the 3D model(s) described and figured in the following publication: Carolina A. Hoffmann, P. G. Rodrigues, M. B. Soares & M. B. Andrade. 2021. Brain endocast of two non-mammaliaform cynodonts from southern Brazil: an ontogenetic and evolutionary approach, Historical Biology, 33:8, 1196-1207, https://doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2019.1685512 

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3D model related to the publication: Morphology and distribution of scales, dermal ossifications, and other non-feather integumentary structures in non-avialan theropod dinosaurs
Christophe Hendrickx, Phil Bell, Michael Pittman, Andrew R. C. Milner, Elena . Cuesta, Jingmai . O’Connor, Mark . Loewen, Philip J. Currie, Octávio . Mateus, Thomas G. Kaye and Rafael . Delcourt
Published online: 2022-01-10

Keywords: Allosauridae; basement scales; Integument; juvenile; non-avian Theropoda

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.162

  Abstract

    The present 3D Dataset contains the 3D model of the skin of Allosaurus described in Hendrickx, C. et al. in press. Morphology and distribution of scales, dermal ossifications, and other non-feather integumentary structures in non-avialan theropod dinosaurs. Biological Reviews. 

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    Allosaurus jimmadseni UMNH VP C481 View specimen

    M3#902_UMNH VP C481

    The material consists of a 3D reconstruction of the counterpart of a 30 cm2 patch of skin impression associated with the anterior dorsal ribs/pectoral region of the specimen of Allosaurus jimmadseni UMNH VP C481. The skin shows a semi-uniform basement of 1-2 mm diameter pebbles with a smaller number of slightly larger (up to 3 mm) ovoid scales. The irregular shape, distribution, and overall small size of these larger scales suggest that they are not classifiable as feature scales but rather as variations in the basement scales.

    Type: "3D_surfaces"

    3D view: doi: 10.18563/m3.sf.902  




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Published in Volume 08, issue 01 (2022)

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3D models related to the publication: Wild versus lab house mice: Effects of age, diet, and genetics on molar geometry and topography.
Sabrina Renaud, Caroline Romestaing and Yoland . Savriama
Published online: 2021-08-06

Keywords: dental functional morphology; geometric morphometrics; hybridization; mastication; occlusal relief

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.141

  Abstract

    This contribution contains 3D models of upper molar rows of house mice (Mus musculus domesticus). The erupted part of the right row is presented for specimens belonging to four groups: wild-trapped mice, wild-derived lab offspring, a typical laboratory strain (Swiss) and hybrids between wild-derived and Swiss mice. These models are analyzed in the following publication: Savriama et al 2021: Wild versus lab house mice: Effects of age, diet, and genetics on molar geometry and topography. https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.13529 

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Published in Volume 07, issue 03 (2021)

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3D models of fossils of Dinomyidae rodents (Rodentia: Caviomorpha) from the Miocene and Quaternary of Brazil
Leonardo Kerber, David Dias da Silva and Francisco R. Negri
Published online: 2019-07-18

Keywords: Micro CT-SCan; morphology; Potamarchinae; Serra da Capivara; Solimões Formation

doi: 10.18563/journal.m3.95

  Abstract

    This contribution contains 3D models of extinct rodents Dinomyidae from Miocene and Quaternary of Brazil. The Miocene specimens that were digitalized include the holotypes of Potamarchus adamiae, Pseudopotamarchus villanuevai, and Ferigolomys pacarana collected in the Solimões Formation (Upper Miocene), northern Brazil. The Quaternary specimens are the holotype and paratype of Niedemys piauiensis, found in Upper Pleistocene deposits from northeast Brazil. 

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Published in Volume 05, issue 03 (2019)

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